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ARM 处理器:RISC与CISC 是什么?

作者:博维科技 时间:2020-12-17 14:02

1. 都是从不务正业开始

RUTONGBINGBUSHIYICPUQIJIA,ERSHICONGCUNCHUQIKUAZUDAOICSHEJI,ZHIJINCHENGWEIx86CHULIQIDELONGTOU。ARMYESHIYIYANG,ZHEIYIQIEDOUYAOCONGHermann HauserHEChris CurrySUOCHUANGLIDECambridge Processor UnitKAISHISHUOQI。

1978NIAN,YOUWULIXUEJIAHermann HauserHEGONGCHENGSHIChris CurryYITONGZAIYINGGUOJIANQIAOCHENGLILEYIJIANGONGSI,GONGSIMINGCHENGZHIJIEQUZUOCambridge Processor Unit(CPU),ZHUYAOCONGSHITIGONGDANGDIDIANZIYIQISHEBEIDEYEWU。DIYIFENHEYUEJISHIWEIACE Coin EquipmentGONGSIKAIFAYIKUANSHUIGUOPAN,YEJIUSHILABADEYOUXIJI。

2. 世界上首颗RISC处理器

SUIZHESHIJIANGUOQU,JIANJIANDIFAXIANYUANBENDEYINGJIANSHEJIYIBUFUXUQIU,AcornXIANGYAOSHENGJIJIQINEIDECPU。DANGSHICHULIQIDEFAZHANCHAOLIUSHIYOU8WEIYUANZHUANXIANG16WEIYUAN,YIKAISHIYOUKAOLVSHIYONGMEIGUOGUOJIABANDAOTIYIJIXINDE16WEIYUANXINPIAN,DANSHIJINGGUOPINGGUHOU,FAXIAN2GEQUEDIAN。

ZHIXINGSHANGYOUDIANMAN,ZHONGDUANDEHUIYINGSHIJIANTAIZHANG,ERQIETAIGUI。

YITAI500YINGBANGDEJISUANJI,CPUSHOUJIAGAODA100YINGBANG。

YUSHIZHIHAOZHUANXIANGIntel,YAOQIUTIGONGYIXIE80286SHEJIZILIAOYIJIYANGPIN,DANSHIQUEZAODAOIntelJUJUE。ZHEIJIANSHIQINGHOULAIZHIJIEDAOZHIAcornJUEDINGSHEJIZIJIXUYAODECPU,YOUYUCAIYONGRISCJIAGOUDEGUANXI,MINGCHENGJIUCHENGWEIAcorn RISC Machine(ARM)。

2.1. RISC与CISC的差异

CHULIQIDEZHILINGJIKEJIANDANFENWEI2ZHONG,CISC(complex instruction set computer)YIJIRISC(reduced instruction set computer)。YIKAISHIDECHULIQIDOUSHICISCJIAGOU,SUIZHESHIJIANYANJIN,YOUYUELAIYUEDUODEZHILINGJIJIARU。YOUYUDANGSHIBIANYIQIDEJISHUBINGBUCHUNSHU,CHENGXUDOUHUIZHIJIEYIJIQIMAHUOSHIHUIBIANYUYANXIECHENG,WEILEJIANSHAOCHENGXUSHEJISHIDESHEJISHIJIAN,ZHUJIANKAIFACHUDANYIZHILING,FUZACAOZUODECHENGXUMA,SHEJISHIZHIXUXIEXIAJIANDANDEZHILING,ZAIJIAOYOUCPUQUZHIXING。DANSHIHOULAIYOURENFAXIAN,ZHENGGEZHILINGJIZHONG,ZHIYOUYUE20%DEZHILINGCHANGCHANGHUIBEISHIYONGDAO,YUEZHANZHENGGECHENGXUDE80%;SHENGYU80%DEZHILING,ZHIZHANZHENGGECHENGXUDE20%。YUSHI1979NIANMEIGUOJIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELAIFENXIAODEDavid PattersonJIAOSHOUTICHULERISCDEXIANGFA,ZHUZHANGYINGJIANYINGGAIZHUANXINJIASUCHANGYONGDEZHILING,JIAOWEIFUZADEZHILINGZELIYONGCHANGYONGDEZHILINGQUZUHE。

RISC的优点列举如下:

指令长度固定,方便CPU译码,简化译码器设计。

尽量在CPU的暂存器(最快的存储器元件)里操作,避免额外的读取与载入时间。

由于指令长度固定,更能受益于执行线路管线化(pipeline)后所带来的效能提升。

处理器简化,晶体管数量少,易于提升运作时脉。比起同时脉的CISC处理器,耗电量较低。

RISC的缺点列举如下:

复杂指令需要由许多的小指令去完成,程序变得比较大,存储器也占用比较多,这在硬盘昂贵,常常使用磁带储存的时代来说,是个大缺点。

程序变长,代表着读取工作变得繁重,需要更多的时间将指令从存储器载入至处理器内。

这里也提供一个小小的概念,CISC是在RISC出现之后才出现的相对名词,并不是从一开始就有CISC、RISC这2种处理器架构。
3. 首颗RISC架构CPU

YU1985NIAN,AcornSHEJICHULEDIYIDAICHULIQIXINPIAN,CHENGWEIARM1,YOUSophie WilsonSHEJICHULEISIYU6502DEZHILINGJI,YINWEIDANGSHIAcornWEIYINGGUOGUOJIAGUANGBOGONGSIBBCSUOZHIZAODEBBC MicroJISUANJICAIYONGMOS 6502CHULIQI,SHIYONGLEISIDEZHILINGJIYOUZHUYUSUODUANKAIFASHIJIANYIJIJISHUZHUANYI。Steve FurberZESHIFUZESHEJIYINGJIANSHIZUO。ARM1YIDIERKECHULIQIDESHENFEN,ANZHUANGZAIBBC MicroNEIBU。

ARM1ZAIJINGYUANSHEJIBUFEN,GUIGEWEI3WEIMIZHICHENG、2CENGJINSHUCENG、ZONGJI2WAN5QIANGEJINGTIGUAN、6MHzYUNZUOSHIMAI、XIAOHAOGONGLV120mW、XINPIANMIANJI50mm2。DANGSHIIntelDE80286SHIYONG1.5WEIMIZHICHENG、13WAN4QIANGEJINGTIGUAN、6~12MhzYUNZUOSHIMAI,TONGSHIZHEI2KUANCHULIQIDOUBUBAOHANKUAIQU。

同年10月,Intel发表80386处理器,与之相比,ARM1显得功能简单、能源消耗较少,在效能上不是80386的对手。这一差异导致ARM系列处理器往后的设计路线明显与Intel不同,Intel持续迈向x86高效能设计,ARM专注于低成本、低功耗的研发
4. 渐入佳境、架构变更

ZHENZHENGSHANGYEHUADECHULIQIWEIARM2,ARM1CHULIQIJIAGOUWEIARMv1,DAOLEARM2GENGXINDAOARMv2,ZHEIYIDAIXINZENGCHENGFAQIZAIHEXINZHIZHONG。ARMv2DEJINJIEBANARMv2aZESHIDUOBAOLECUNCHUQIGUANLIHEXIN、HUITUJII/OCHULIQI。JIEXIALAIDEARM3,CHULIQIJIAGOUARMv2a,SHIDIYICIYUCPULINEIJIANLE4KBKUAIQU。1990NIAN,AcornKAISHIYUPINGGUOJISUANJIHEZUOFAZHANXINYIDAIDEARMXINPIAN,TEDIHAIWEICISHELILEYIJIANGONGSI,CHENGWEIAdvanced RISC MachinesGONGSI。ZUICHUCAIWUCHIJIN,BANGONGSHIJINWEIYIGEGUCANG,CHENGYUANYEJINYOU12REN。YUANBENARMSUODAIBIAODEAcorn RISC Machine,YEZAICISHIGENGHUANWEIAdvanced RISC Machine。

1991NIANFAZHANCHUDEARM6,CHULIQIJIAGOUGENGXINWEIARMv3,ZHUYAOKUOZHANCUNCHUQIDINGZHIXIAN。ZHIQIANDEARMCHANPINDOUZHIYOU26bitDECUNCHUQIDINGZHIXIAN,ZUIDAKEZHIYUAN64MBDECUNCHUQI。CONGARM6KAISHI,WANZHENGZHIYUAN32WEIYUANCUNCHUQIDINGZHI,ZUIDAZHIYUANDAO4GB。ZAICILITIYIXIA,ARM6CHULIQIJIAZUXIADEARM610CHULIQI,CENGJINGYONGZAIPINGGUOJISUANJIDENewton Message PadSHANGTOU,NewtonYEBEISHIWEIXIANJINPDAYUSmart PhoneDESHIZU。

5. 开始大卖的ARM7

1993NIANTUICHUDEARM7YANXUZHEARMv3HEXIN,DANSHIYOUYUZHICHENGDEJINBU,KUAIQUJIADAZHI8KB,SHIMAIYEYIJULAGAOZHI40MHz。

ARM7TDMI(CHULIQIJIAGOUARMv4T),CHULEYUANBENDE32WEIYUANZHILINGJIWAI,HAIXINZENGLEThumb,YEJIUSHIJINGJIANGUODE16WEIYUANZHILINGJI,RANGBIANYICHULAIDECHENGXUKEYISUOXIAOCHENGXUMATIJI,GUANFANGBIAOSHIYUBIAOZHUNDEARMZHILINGJIXIANGBI,KEYISUOXIAO35%DECHENGXUMATIJI,YOUNENGXIANGSHOU32WEIYUANJIAGOUSUODAILAIDEXIAONENGTISHENG。ThumbZHILINGZAIZHIXINGSHIHUITONGGUOCHULIQINEIYIGEJIAOZUOThumbYIMAQIDEDONGXI,JISHIJIEYACHENG32WEIYUANARMZHILING,TONGSHIYEKESHOUHUIYU32bitDECUNCHUQIZONGXIAN,JIASUZHILINGYUZILIAODEZAIRU。

DANZHIHOUDEARM8JIAZUHEDigital Equipment CorporationXIANGARMMAISHOUQUANZIXINGZHIZUODECHULIQIStrongARM,DOUBUZHIYUANThumb。

ARM7EJ的处理器架构为ARMv5TEJ,直接加入称为Jazelle DBX的运算电路,能够以硬件加速大部分的Java bytecode,提升Java程序的执行效率;同时也新增适合处理DSP的指令,如饱和运算(saturated arithmetic)可以加速多媒体应用
5.1. Java的执行方式

CHENGXUSHEJISHIYIJavaYUYANXIECHUCHENGXUHOU,JINGGUOBIANYIQIBIANYICHENGJava bytecodeDANG,ZHIXINGSHIBIANBAZHEIGEJava bytecodeDIURUYIGECHENGZUOJVM(Java Virtual Machine)DEMONIQILIZHIXING,ZAIGEZHONGPINGTAISHANGDOUYOUBUTONGDEJVM,SUOYIBIANYIGUOHOUDEJava bytecodeNENGGOUKUAPINGTAIZHIXING。

5.2. 饱和运算(saturated arithmetic)

正常以二进制表示为11111111(255)+00000001(1)=100000000(256),但是一个8bit的加法器,当输入255+1的指令后,计算出来的结果将会是0。因为处理器只有8bit,最高位会产生数值溢位,实际交由8bit加法器运算将变成11111111(255)+00000001(1)=00000000(0)。但是当处理器支援饱和运算后,255+1的结果将变成255,经计算后的数值资料只会顶天立地(该资料类型的最大值或最小值),不会产生overflow或是underflow。
6. 更换为哈佛架构

ARM9CHULIQIJIAZUNEIBUCHULIQIJIAGOUWEIARMv5TE,DAORULEXIANGDANGZHONGYAODEJIAGOUGENGXIN,YIWANGARMHEx86CHULIQIDOUSHICAIYONGFENG?NIUMANJIAGOU,YIJIZHONGYANGCHULIQIHECHUCUNZHUANGZHISHIFENKAIDE,ZHONGYANGCHULIQIDAOCHUCUNZHUANGZHIZHONGDUQUYIDUANCHENGXUMAZHIXING,ERBUTONGCHENGXUMAKEYIZAOCHENGBUTONGDEZHIXINGJIEGUO。XIANGJIAOYUGUZAOSHIDAIDEJISUANJI,YIDANYAOZHIXINGBUTONGDECHENGXUMASHI,BIXUGENGDONGYINGJIANSHEJI,ZHONGXINJIEXIAN。YUEHAN?FENG?NIUMANZAI1945NIANDELUNWENZHONGTICHUZHEIGECHULIDANYUANHECHUCUNDANYUANFENLIDEGAINIAN,DUIYUHOULAIJISUANJIFAZHANYOUXIANGDANGZHONGDADEYINGXIANG。

HAFOJIAGOUZESHIFENG?NIUMANJIAGOUDEYANSHEN,HAFOJIAGOUGENGJINYIBUDINGYILECHENGXUHEZILIAOSHIYOULIANGGEDULIDEKONGJIANCHUCUN,TONGSHIYEYOULIANGGECUNCHUQIKONGZHIDANYUANFENBIECAOZUO。DUQUCHENGXUHOUYIMABIANDEDAOZILIAOWEIZHI,ZAIDAOZILIAOCUNCHUQIZHONGDUQUZILIAO。CIZHONGJIAGOUHAOCHUZAIYUZHILINGHEZILIAODECUNCHUQICAOZUONENGGOUTONGSHIJINXING,DANGCHULIQIZAIYUNSUANZILIAOSHI,BIANKEYIXIANXINGXIEQUXIAYIDAOZHILING。

7. 智能型手机应用大爆发

BEIPINGGUOXIANGZHONGDEARMv6

ZAI2007NIANDEMacworldFASHENGLEYIJIANDASHI,HUASHIDAIDEDANSHENGLE,ZHIJUEDESHIYONGZHECAOZUOLIKEXIJUANQUANQIU,DESHANGYEMOSHIJIEJUEYIWANGPDACHENGXUTAISHAODEJIONGKUANG。ERDIYIDAIDEiPhoneHEQIHOUDEiPhone 3GBIANSHICAIYONGARMv6CHULIQIJIAGOU,YESHIDIYICIRANGRENGANSHOUDAO,YUANLAIKEYIZUODAOZHEIMEHAODESHIYONGZHETIYAN。

ARMv6JIAGOUZAI2001TICHU,DUIYINGARM11CHULIQIJIAZU。XINZENGSIMDCHULIGONGNENG,XIANGDANGSHIHEYINGPIANCHULIJIASUSHIYONG。TONGSHIYETICHUARM11MPCore,SHOUCIJIANGDUOHEXINDEGAINIANDAORUARMCHULIQIZHONG。ThumbZHILINGJIYESHENGJIDAODI2DAIThumb-2,JIANGYUANXIAN16bitDEZHILINGJIBUFENKUOZHANDAO32bit,BIANCHENGTONGSHIYONGYOU16bitHE32bitZHILINGZHANGDUDEZHILINGJI。

BUGUOZHEIGEARMv6JIAGOUYOUDIANDUANMING,HAIMEIKANDAOJIKEDUOHEDEARM11CHULIQI(DEJIWEIARM11MPCore),JIUBEIARMJINJIEERLAIDECortexCHULIQIJIGAIGUOQU。

7.1. 划分高中低阶的Cortex

ZAIARM11ZHIHOUDECHULIQIJIAZU,GAICAICortexMINGMING,BINGZHENDUIGAO、ZHONG、DIJIEFENBIEHUAFENWEIA、R、MSANDACHULIQI。XIANGSHIGAOJIESHOUJIYONGDECoretex-AXILIE,HUOZHESHIWEIKONGZHIQISUOSHIYONGDECoretex-MXILIE,XUYAOJIAOGAOXINGNENG、HUOSHISHISHICHULIDEXITONGZEGAIYONGCoretex-RXILIE。

CHULECortex-M0、Cortex-M1WEIARMv6-M,FENG?NIUMANJIAGOUZHIWAI,QITACortexDECHULIQIJIAGOUGENGXINDAOARMv7,YIYANGYOUGAOZHIDIFENCHENGARMv7-A、ARMv7-R、ARMv7-MSANZHONG,QIZHONGARMv7-MBUZHIYUANZUIYUANSHIDEARMZHILINGJI,JINZHIYUAN16bitDEThumbZHILINGJI,QUEJIARUNVIC(Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller),TIGONGGENGKUAIDEZHONGDUANCHULI、HAIYOUFUZECPUZAISHENCENGSHUIMIANSHIDEZHONGDUANCHULIWIC(Wake-up Interrupt Controller)。

Cortex-A(ARMv7-A)HE Coretex-R(ARMv7-R)2ZHONGJIAGOUJIBENSHANGSHIXIANGTONGDE,DOUZHIYUANGENGXINDEJINJIEXINGSIMDCHULI,CHENGWEINEON,ARMXUANCHENGXIAONENGZHISHAOSHISHANGYIDAICHULIQIJIAGOUARMv6DE2BEI。NVIDIADETegra 2CHULIQIJIAOWEITESHU,SUISHICAIYONGCortex-ADECPU,DANMEIYOUBAOHANNEON,FANERSHIYONGZIJIADEJISHU,NEIJIANZHUANMENDEYINXUNCHULIQIHESHIXUNCHULIQI。

Cortex-A和 Coretex-R最大的差异在于存储器管理单元部分,Cortex-A使用MMU(memory management unit)、Cortex-R使用MPU(memory protection unit)。前者的存储器管理单元提供虚拟存储器的支援,后者只能运作在存储器保护模式。
7.2. 存储器管理:real、protected、virtual

ZUICHUDECPUCUNCHUQIGUANLIZHIYOUreal mode,ZAIZHEIGEMOSHIXIA,SUOYOUCHENGXUDOUKEYIZHIJIECUNQUCUNCHUQI、I/O、JISUANJIFUJIADEYINGJIAN。DANSHIZAIZHEIZHONGMOSHIXIADECUNCHUQIKONGJIANSHAO(1MB),CHENGXUWUFADUOGONG(RUGUO2GECHENGXUTONGSHIWEIJIDAYINJIZILIAO,YINCHULAIHUISHISHENMEGUIA!)。DAOLE80286CHULIQIHOU,DAORULEprotected mode,JIANGZUOYEXITONGHECHENGXUDECUNCHUQIQUKUAIFENKAI,RUGUOCHENGXUXIANGYAOCUNQUCUNCHUQI,BIXUJINGYOUZUOYEXITONGZHONGJIE。CONGERTISHENGXITONGANQUANXINGHEWENDINGXING。virtual memoryZESHIZAIprotected modeXIADECHANWU,YUNXUYINGPANZHILEIFEISHITICUNCHUQIDEZHUANGZHINENGGOUMONICHENGCUNCHUQI。LUOJISHANGLAISHUO,KEYIZAIBUZENGJIAYINGJIANHUAFEIDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIJIEJIADASHITICUNCHUQIRONGLIANG。DANYINGPANDECUNQUSUDUQUEYUANBURUSHITICUNCHUQI,MUQIANSATA 6Gb/sJIEMIANPINKUANWEI6Gb/s,DDR3-1600SHUANGTONGDAODEJIEMIANPINKUANQUEYOU25.6GB/s,LIANGZHEXIANGCHAYUE43BEI。

8. 遍地开花的ARM

ARMYIKAISHIYUPINGGUO、VLSISUOTOUZIDEZIJINXIACHENGLI,CHUQIYINGYUNZHUANGKUANGBUJIA,ERYINGGUODANGDIYEMEIYOUSHENMEJINGYUANCHANG,TONGSHIARMYEJUEXINJIANGZIXINGFAZHANDEJISHUCHENGWEIYEJIEDEBIAOZHUN。ZAIZHEIXIETIAOJIANDEJIAZONGZHIXIA,ARMXUANZELEYIIPSHOUQUANDEFANGSHIJINGYING。

IP(intellectual propertyZHIHUICAICHANQUAN)SHOUQUAN,JISHIBAZIJISUOCHUANGZAODEDONGXI,YIMOUZHONGFANGSHISHOUQUANJIQITARENLIYONG。LIRUWOMENZAIXINGRENCHUANYUEXIANLIANGPANGSUOKANDAODEXIAOLVRENZOULUDENGHAO,DANGCHUDESHEJIZHEBIANKEYIBACIZHONGXIANGFASHOUQUANJIQITADIQUCAIYONG,JIEYISHOUQUSHOUQUANFEI。ERARMYESHITOUGUOCIZHONGFANGSHIYINGLI,CHULEYIKAISHIDESHOUQUANFEIZHIWAI,MEIMAICHUYIKEXINPIANHAIXUYAOFUBANQUANFEI。LINGYIJIAJIAOWEIZHIMINGCAIYONGIPSHOUQUANYINGLIDEGONGSIWEIMIPS,QICHANPINCHANGCHANGKEYIZAIWANGLUOSHEBEIZHONGJIANDAO。

ZHEIZHONGSHOUQUANFANGSHISHIDEMEIJIAGONGSIDOUKEYIYIJUZISHENXUQIU,SHEJICHUKEZHIHUAXINPIAN。BIRUSHUOCHANPINBINGBUXUYAOHUITUDEBUFEN,BIANKEYIBAHUITUIPHEXINNADIAO,YIHUOZHEYEKEYIZAIXINPIANLISAIRUQITAJIACHANGSHANGZUOCHUDEIPHEXIN,RANGGONGNENGGENGDUOYUAN。XIANGJIAOYUIntelJINNIANQIANGPOZHONGJIANGDEXIANSHIHEXIN,ARMDEZUOFADANXINGXUDUO。

9. 未来朝向64bit迈进

RUTONG x86MAIXIANGx64YIBAN,ARMYEXUYAOGENGDADEZONGXIANLAIZENGJIAXIAONENG。ZAIXIAYIDAIDEARMv8JIAGOUZHONG,YEJIANGJIARU64bitDEZHIYUAN,DANSHIYIQIEDOUHAIZAITAOLUNZHONG。DANSHIXIANZAIYEBUJI,ZANSHIHAIYOUGECoretex-A15KEYINALAITIANYIXIAFAZHANSHICHENG,ZHIYUHUIZENGJIANAXIEZHILINGJIZESHANGWEIQUEDING。

ARMv8CHULIQIJIANGYOU2GEZHIXINGZHUANGTAI,AArch32HEAArch64。QIANZHEJIANGWANQUANJIANRONGARMv7DEZHILINGJIJIJIAGOU,JIANGYUANFENGBUDONGDIYIZHIDAOARMv8SHENSHANG。HOUZHEAArch64ZESHIQUANXINDEZHILINGJIYUCHULIQIJIAGOU。

ARMMUQIANYEZAIJIJIJIANLIBINGDENGDAI64bitDESHENGTAILIANWANBEI,JIURUTONGx86ZHUANHUANDAOx64YIBAN,AMDDE64WEIYUANCHULIQIZAOZAI2003NIANWENSHI,DANSHIDENGDAO64WEIYUANZUOYEXITONG、CHENGXUZHENZHENGPUJI,QUEYEZHISHIJINJINIANDESHIQINGERYI。GENGBIESHUOYIBANRENJISUANJICCAOLINEIGEProgram Files x86ZILIAOJIA,FANGZAILIMIANDECHENGXUYINGGAIBIProgram FilesHAIYAODUO。

ZUIJINKAISHISHENJIASHANGZHANGDEYINGJIANJIAJIEMIGONGNENG,ARMYEYUJIJIARUAESJIAJIEMIDEZHILING,LIYONGJINJIESIMDDE128bitZANCUNQILAISHIZUO,SHA-1HESHA-256YEZAIZHIYUANZHONG。

 

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