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浅谈产业界与学术界的合作研究

作者:博维科技 时间:2020-12-10 09:53

ZUIJINWANGLUOSHANGYOUYIGELIUCHUANSHENGUANGDEWEIGUSHI:“MOUQIYEYINJINLEYITIAOXIANGZAOBAOZHUANGXIAN,JIEGUOFAXIANJINGCHANGHUIYOUKONGHELIUGUO。CHANGZHANGPINQINGYIGEBOSHIHOUHUALE200 WANSHEJICHUYIGEQUANZIDONGFENJIANXITONG。YIGEXIANGZHENQIYEYUDAOLETONGYANGDEWENTI,MINGONGHUA90 YUANMAILEYITAIDADIANSHANFANGZAISHENGCHANXIANPANG,YIYOUKONGHEJINGGUOBIANHUICHUIZOU。”ZHEIGEWEIGUSHIBUDUANCHUXIANZAIBIZHEDESHIXIANZHONG,XIANGBIZAIWANGLUOSHANGDEDAOLEGONGZHONGDERENKE、YINQILEGONGMING,SUOYIDAJIAZHENGXIANGZHUANFA。PINGXINERLUN,DADUOSHURENDENEIXINQISHISHICHONGSHANGZHISHIDE,ERYONGZHEIGEGUSHILAIYEYUYIBOSHIHOUWEIDAIBIAODEKEYANRENYUAN,YEXUGENGDUODESHIXIANGBIAODADUIGUONEIKEYANXIANZHUANGDEBUMAN。

QISHIZAIGUONEIBUJINSHIPUTONGMINZHONGDUIXUESHUJIEBURENKE,JISHIZAITONGYILINGYU,CHANYEJIEYUXUESHUJIEZHIJIANYECUNZAIMINGXIANDEGEHE,ZHEIZAIXINXIJISHULINGYUSIHUYOUWEITUCHU。CHANYEJIERENWEIXUESHUJIEDEYANJIUSHIZIYUZILE、HAOWUYONGCHU,CHUNCUILANGFEIGUOJIAZIYUAN,ERXUESHUJIEZERENWEICHANYEJIEDEYANFASHISHANZHAIFUZHI、SHUIPINGDIXIA,MEIYOUJISHUHANLIANG。

相比较而言,美国信息技术的产业界与学术界则融洽得多,既相互尊重又互惠互利,既有分工又有合作,共同推动信息技术的发展。面对中美两国产业界与学术界关系的巨大差异,我们不禁会产生很多疑问——美国是否也经历过中国这样的阶段?他们今天的模式是如何形成的?美国的产业界与学术界之间是如何分工合作的?中国该如何改变产业界与学术界的关系?美国有哪些经验教训可以借鉴?

BENWENJIANGJIUZHEIXIEWENTITANYIXIABIZHEDEGERENGUANCHAHECUQIANKANFA,YOUYUYIGERENDESHIJIAOYOUXIAN,NANMIANYOUPIANMIANYUBUDANGZHICHU,SUOYIXIWANGPAOZHUANYINYU,NENGYINQIGENGDUODUIZHEIGEHUATIGANXINGQUDEPENGYOUDETANTAO,WEIGAISHANWOGUOXINXIJISHULINGYUCHANYEJIEYUXUESHUJIEZHIJIANDEGUANXITIGONGYIXIEJIANYAN。

一、美国学术界的探索

MEIGUODEXUESHUJIEZAIYUCHANYEJIEHUDONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEFENGONGSHIBIJIAOQINGXIDE。WEICHANYEJIESHUSONGRENCAISHIXUESHUJIEZUIZHONGYAODEMUBIAOZHIYI。CONGMEIGUOGAOXIAOZHENGGEFANWEILAIKAN,SHIXISHENGMOSHISHILIANJIEXUESHUJIEYUCHANYEJIEDEYIZHONGZUIPUBIANERYOUYOUXIAODEFANGSHI,JIHUSUOYOUXUEXIAODOUYUNXUHEGULIXUESHENGDAOQIYEQUSHIXI。DANSHIMEISUODAXUEZAIJUTIDERENCAILINIAN、PEIYANGFANGSHI、LIUDONGMOSHIDENGFANGMIANYOUYOUSUOBUTONG,HUOZHESHUOSHIGEJUTESE。YUSHIBUTONGXUEXIAOPEIYANGCHULAIDERENCAIYEHUIYOUYIXIEBIJIAOXIANMINGDETEDIAN,BIRUSITANFUDAXUEDEXUESHENGGENGXIHUANCHUANGYE,MASHENGLIGONGXUEYUANDEXUESHENGZEGENGREZHONGYUGONGKEJISHUNANTI。ZHEIXIEMOSHISHIGEDAXUEBUDUANTANSUOZHUJIANXINGCHENGDE。

斯坦福大学的硅谷之路【1】

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ERZHANQIJIAN,SITANFUDAXUEDIAOZHENGLEBANXUELINIAN,RENWEIDAXUEBUYINGDANGSHI“BUSHIRENJIANYANHUODEXIANGYATA”,ERYINGGAISHIWEISHEHUIGONGZHONGFUWUDEJIGOU,YUSHISITANFUDAXUEJIJICANYUMEIGUOLIANBANGZHENGFUYUJUNGONGQIYEDEYIXIEKEYANXIANGMU。RANERZHEIZHONGZHUANBIANBINGBUSHIYIFANFENGSHUN,BIJINGDAXUEHEQIYEGUANZHUDECEZHONGDIANYOUSUOBUTONG,SHUANGFANGDEZUOSHIFANGSHIYUWENHUAYEYOUHENDAQUBIE,SUOYIZAIHEZUOGUOCHENGZHONGBUKEBIMIANDICHANSHENGLEYIXIEMAODUN。BIRUZAI20 SHIJI30 NIANDAIMO,SITANFUDAXUECENGJINGHEQIYEYOUGUOYICIBUCHENGGONGDEHEZUO。DANGSHISITANFUDAXUEWULIXIJIAOSHIFAMINGLEWEIBODIANZIGUAN,MEIGUOSIPEILIGONGSIKANZHONGLEGAIJISHUDESHICHANGQIANJING,ZHIFUJINGFEIXIWANGLIANHECHANYEHUA。DANZAIHEZUOGUOCHENGZHONG,SIPEILIGONGSIWANQUANZHANGKONGLESHIYANSHI,GANSHESHIYANFANGXIANG,QIANGZHIJIAKUAISHIYANSUDU,SHENZHIXIANZHIJIAOSHIFABIAOXUESHULUNWEN,ZUIZHONGDAOZHISHUANGFANGBUHUANERSAN。ZHEICISHIBAIDEJINGLICUSHISITANFUDAXUEFANSIDAODIGAIRUHEYUQIYEHEZUO。

ERZHANJIESHUHOU,SITANFUDAXUEKAISHITANSUOJIANLIXINXINGDEYUZHENGFUHEQIYEXUQIUZHIJIEDUIJIEDEJIAOXUEKEYANYURENCAIPEIYANGTIZHI,TUICHULEYIXILIEXINDECUOSHI。BIAO1 LIECHULEYIXIEYOUDAIBIAOXINGDECUOSHI,BIRUDIAOZHENGXINSHUI,REMENZHUANYEJIAOSHOUDEXINSHUIKENENGSHILENGMENZHUANMENDELIANGBEI。ZHEIXIECUOSHIDEMUBIAOSHIRANGGEGEYUANXINENGHUODEJINKENENGDUODEWAIBUQIYEZIZHU,DANZHEIYINQILEBAOYUAN——“BANDAXUEXIANGBANGONGSI,JIAOSHOUDOUCHENGLEGUYUAN”。

BUGUO,ZHEIXIEGAIGECUOSHIWEISITANFUDAXUEDEJUEQIDIANDINGLEJIANSHIDEJICHU,ERGUIGUDEQIYEHESITANFUDAXUEYESHIXIANLESHENCENGCIRONGHE。YOUSITANFUDAXUEDEJIAOSHOUHEXUESHENGMENCHUANGBANDEXINXILINGYUDEGONGSIBAOKUOHUIPU(HP)、SIKE(Cisco)、GUGE(Google)、YAHU(Yahoo)、WEIRUI(VMWare)、BEIBAO(PayPal)、YINGWEIDA(NVidia)、GUIGUTUXINGGONGSI(SGI)、MIPS、SHENGYANG(Sun)、LINKEYIN(LinkedIn)、WANGFEI(Netflix)、LUOJI(Logitech)……,HAIBAOKUOYIKUARUKECHUANDAISHEBEICHANYEDENAIKE(Nike)。2012 NIANDEYIXIANGYANJIUXIANSHISITANFUDAXUEDEBIYESHENGMEINIANCHUANGZAO2.7WANYIMEIYUANDESHOURU【2】。JINGUAN“2.7WANYI”ZHEIGESHUZIDADERANGRENNANYIZHIXIN,DANSITANFUDAXUEQUESHIZAIYIQIDUTEDEFANGSHITUIDONGXINXICHANYEDEFAZHAN。

“SITANFU- GUIGU”MOSHISHIFOUKEYIZAISHIJIEQITADIFANGFUZHI?ZHEIGEWENTIXIANGXINYOUHENDUORENDOUZAIYANJIU。WOMENKENDINGWUFAQUANPANFUZHI,DANQILINIANHEYIXIECUOSHIYEXUZHIDEJIEJIAN。

加州大学伯克利分校计算机系的业界交流会

JIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAODEJISUANJIYANJIUSHUIPINGZAIQUANSHIJIESHOUQUYIZHI,TEBIESHIZAIJISUANJIXITONGJIEGOUFANGMIAN。GAIXIAOJISUANJIXIDANSHENGLEHENDUOTUIDONGJISUANJICHANYEFAZHANDEJINGDIANZHIZUO,LIRUBerkeley Unix, RISC, RAID,NOW, Berkeley AMP SHIYANSHIDESpark。TIXIJIEGOUTAIDOU、FAMINGRISC HERAID DEJIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAOJIAOSHOUDAWEI·PATESEN(David Patterson) CENGDUOCITIDAOZHEIXIEXIANGMUCHENGGONGDEGUANJIAN,QIMIJUEJIUSHIMEINIANJUBANLIANGJIEWEIQI3 TIANDEYEJIEJIAOLIUHUI。

PATESENJIAOSHOUZAIQIZUIJINDEWENZHANG《RUHEJIANSHEYIGEZAOGAODEYANJIUZHONGXIN》(How to Build a Bad Research Center)【3】 ZHONGTIDAO,ZHEIZHONGJIAOLIUHUISHISHIYANSHIMEIWEICHENGYUANDOUYOUJIHUIYUSHUSHIWEILAIZIYEJIEDEZHUANJIAJIAOLIU。ZHUANJIAHUIDUIXIANGMUDEGEGEFANGMIANTICHUJIANYI,ZHEIDUIXIANGMUDELIJIEYUYANJIUFANGXIANGDEDIAOZHENGFEICHANGZHONGYAO。ERZAIXUESHUJIEYAODEDAOZHEIYANGMIANDUIMIANDEJIAOLIUJIHUISHIFEICHANGNANDEDE。ZHEIZHONGJIAOLIUHUIDUIXUESHENGDEPEIYANGYEQIDAOLEFEICHANGJIJIDEZUOYONG。MEIWEIBOSHISHENGZAIGONGDUBOSHIQIJIANKEYIHUODEZHISHAO10 CIJIAOLIUJIHUI,ZHEIBUJINYOULIYUTUIJINXUESHENGYANJIUGONGZUODEJIEDUANXINGJINZHAN,YEYOULIYUPEIYANGXUESHENGDEBIAODANENGLI,ERQIEHAINENGKUODAXUESHENGDESHEJIAOQUAN,DUITAMENWEILAIZEYEYOUHENDABANGZHU。YIFENZHENDUIYIBIYEDEJIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAOJISUANJIXIXIAOYOUDEWENJUANDIAOCHAXIANSHI,100% DEXIAOYOUDUIYEJIEJIAOLIUHUIDOUJIYULEJIJIDEPINGJIA。ZHEIYANGDEJIAOLIUHUIZAIJIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAOYIJINGSHIXINGLEJIN30 NIAN,QUDELEFEICHANGXIANZHUDEXIAOGUO,SHIGAIXIAODEJISUANJIYANJIUSHIZHONGCHUYUGUOJIZUIQIANYAN,TUIDONGLEJISUANJICHANYEDEFAZHAN。

CHULEMEINIANDINGQIJUXINGDEYEJIEJIAOLIUHUIWAI,PATESENJIAOSHOUZAIQIWENZHANG《NINDEXUESHENGSHININDECAIFU》(Your students are your legacy)【4】 ZHONGTIDAOPAIXUESHENGQUGONGYEJIESHIXIDEZHONGYAOXING。PATESENCHENG,DANGTADEXUESHENGZAIXUNZHAOYANJIUWENTISHANGYUDAOKUNNANTINGZHIQIANJINSHI,TAJIUHUIRANGZHEIXIEXUESHENGDAOGONGYEJIEGONGZUO6 GEYUE。TAMENHUILAIZHIHOUJIUNENGQINGCHUDILEJIETAMENXIANGZUOSHENMEYANJIU,GENGZHONGYAODESHI,TAMENZHIDAOLEWEISHENMEYAOQUZUOZHEIGEYANJIU。

JIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAODEZHEIXIEJUCUOCONGYANJIUCHENGGUOYURENCAIPEIYANGLIANGFANGMIANLAIKANDOUSHIZHUOYOUCHENGJIUDE,WEIJISUANJICHANYEBUDUANSHUSONGDONGLI。YUSITANFUDAXUEZISHANGXIANGXIADESHEJIBUTONG,ZHEIXIEJUCUOBINGBUXUYAOXUEXIAOCENGMIANSHANGDETESHUZHICHI,GENGRONGYISHISHIYUCAOZUO,QIEBUSHOUDIYUHESHIJIANDEXIANZHI,DUIWOMENGUONEIDEDAXUEHEYANJIUJIGOUYOUGENGDADEJIEJIANYIYI。

美欧主流高校的理念转变

DAXUEZUIZAOSHIZAI11 SHIJIDEOUZHOUDANSHENG,QIBANXUELINIANYUYUANZEZHUJIANCHENDIANWEI“DAXUEZIZHI、XUESHUZIYOU”。ZHEIZHONGLINIANRANGDAXUEZAICHAODAIPINFANGENGTIDELISHIJINCHENGZHONGDEYISHENGCUNBINGBUDUANFAZHAN,CHENGWEIRENLEILISHISHANGZUIYOUSHENGMINGLIDESHEHUIJIGOU。BIRUYINGGUONIUJINDAXUECHUANGBANYU1096 NIAN,JUJINYIYOUJINQIANNIANLISHI;JIANQIAODAXUECHUANGBANYU1209NIAN,YEYOU800 NIANLISHI。19 SHIJICHU,DEGUORENHONGBAOCHUANGJIANLEBOLINDAXUE,JIANGYANJIUHEJIAOXUEJIEHE,KAIPILEXIANDAIDAXUEXINMOSHI,DANRENGYI“DAXUEZIZHI、XUESHUZIYOU”WEIYUANZE。YIZHIYILAI,DAXUEZHUZHONGDESHIJICHUXUEKEHECHUNCUIXUESHUDEYANJIU,LISHEHUIMINSHENGXUQIUHENYUAN。MEIGUOZAOQIDEDAXUERUHAFO、YELUDENG,DOUSHIMOFANGOUZHOUDEDAXUEJIANQILAIDE,YEJICHENGLEZHEIXIEBANXUELINIAN。

RUJINXUDUOSHIJIEZHUMINGDAXUEDELINIANFASHENGLEZHUANBIAN。2011 NIAN, HAFODAXUEXIAOZHANGDELU·JIERPING·FUSITEJIAOSHOUZAIHAFOJIANXIAO375 ZHOUNIANZHIJIJIESHOUMEITICAIFANGSHITANDAOLEHAFODEXINZHIXIAOLINIAN。FUSITEXIAOZHANGRENWEI,“ZHONGSHENGDEXUEWENSHIYUXUEXIAO,ZHONGYUSHEHUI”,DAXUEBUZAISHI“XIANGYAZHITA”,ERYINGGAIFUWUYUSHEHUI。WEICI, HAFODAXUETONGGUOYIXILIECUOSHILAIJIANXINGZHEIYILINIAN,BIRUCHUANGJIANLEYIGEXINDEGONGCHENGHEYINGYONGKEXUEYUAN,JIAQIANGYINGYONGJISHUYANJIU;2011 NIANYOUCHOUJIANLECHUANGXINSHIYANSHI(ilab),GULIJIAOSHOU、XUESHENGCANYUCHUANGYE。QITADAXUERUPULINSIDUNDAXUE、MASHENGLIGONGXUEYUAN,CANYUCHUANGYEDEJIAOSHOUYUXUESHENGDEBILIYEZAIBUDUANZENGJIA,ZAIKECHENGSHEZHISHANGYEXIANGYINGDIYOUSUOGAIBIAN。PULINSIDUNDAXUEJISUANJIXIDEXINGEJIAOSHOU(J.P. Singh) KAISHEDE“JISHU、SHANGYEYUSHICHANGDEKUAJIECHUANGXIN”【5】 KECHENGHUIYAOQINGHENDUOFENGTOUZHUANJIA、JISHUZHUANJIAHEYOUCHUANGYEJINGLIDERENSHIWEIXUESHENGJIESHAOJISHUFAZHANQUSHI、GUANLIFANGFA、CHUANGYEJINGYANDENG。

OUZHOUDEDAXUEYUYANJIUJIGOUDELINIANYEYOUZHUANBIAN,BIRUJIANQIAODAXUEDEJISUANJISHIYANSHIZHURENANDI·HUOPO(Andy Hopper) JIAOSHOUJILITUICHONGKEXUEJIAYUQIYEJIAJIEHEDEMOSHI。HUOPOJIAOSHOUSHENTILIXING,CENGYURENGONGTONGCHUANGBANGUO13JIAGONGSI, QIZHONGYOU3 JIAGONGSIYIJINGSHANGSHI,BAOKUORUJINKEBIJIANYINGTEERDEARM GONGSI。HUOPOJIAOSHOUZAIGUANLISHIYANSHISHIGULIYANJIURENYUANCHUANGYE,BINGYINRUXINDEGUANLIMOSHI,LIRUSHIYANSHIXIANGMUDEYOUXIANJIHUIGENJUSHANGYEQIANJINGLAIDONGTAIDIAOJIE,TICHUHESHISHIGONGTONGCAIFUCHUANGZAOKUANGJIA(mutual wealth creation framework) DENG。JIANQIAODAXUEJISUANJISHIYANSHIZAIZHEIXIELINIANDEGUANCHEXIA,ZAIGUOQUJISHINIANYANZHICHULEARM、XenDENGDUIJISUANJICHANYEQIDAOJUDATUIDONGZUOYONGDEJISHU,YEDANSHENGLE200 DUOJIAQIYE,HUOPOJIAOSHOUBENRENZEBEIYINGGUOGUANGBOGONGSIYUWEI“YINGGUOJISUANJILISHIZHONGDEYIWEIOUXIANGJIRENWU”。

ZHEIXIELINIANDEZHUANBIANZHIDEXUESHUJIESIKAO。YIFANGMIAN,GUOWAIDINGJIANDAXUEDEDINGJIANJIAOSHOUYUGONGYEJIEDELIANXIFEICHANGMIQIE,ZHEIXIEDINGJIANJIAOSHOUJIHUDOUCHUANGBANGUOGONGSIHUOZAIYIXIEGONGSIDANRENSHOUXIKEXUEJIAHUOSHOUXIJISHUGUANZHIWU【6】。LINGYIFANGMIAN,XUDUODAXUEJIAOSHOUZAIXUESHUXIUJIAQIJIANHUIXUANZEQUQIYEGONGZUO,QIZHONGYOUBUSHAOZUIZHONGXUANZELIUZAIQIYE。DEZHOUDAXUEAOSIDINGFENXIAODEDAOGE·BOGE(Doug Burger) JIAOSHOUHEKAISELIN·MAILIJIN(Kathryn McKinley) JIAOSHOUBIANXIANHOUQULEWEIRUANYANJIUYUAN。ERHAFODAXUEDEMATE·WEIERSHI(Matt Welsh) JIAOSHOUZAIXUESHUXIUJIAQIJIANDAOGUGEGONGZUOLEYINIANHOU,JUEDINGCONGHAFODAXUECIZHILIUZAILEGUGE。

纵观历史,人类的研究活动越来越多地从探索客观规律的科学研究向利用客观规律的技术研究倾斜,而记录重大技术突破的技术发展史其实就是一部人类社会发展的技术选择史。这个观点对于计算机这门应用性很强的学科而言尤其突出。如果说实践是检验真理的唯一标准,那么除了少数发现客观规律的计算机理论工作外,对于绝大多数计算机系统与应用技术而言,市场才是检验其价值的核心标准。

二、美国产业界的努力

MEIGUODECHANYEJIEDUIJICHUYANJIUYUQIANYANYANJIUFEICHANGZHONGSHI,CHULECHANPINYANFA,HENDUOQIYEHAIZHUANMENSHELILECONGSHIJICHUYANJIUYUQIANYANYANJIUDESHIYANSHI。ZHEIXIEYANJIUYUANYUSHIYANSHIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGWEIQIYETIGONGLEJISHUCHUBEI。DANQIYENEIBUDEXIAOXUNHUANBINGBUNENGRANGZHENGGECHANYECHIXUFAZHAN,YINWEITUIDONGZHENGGECHANYEFAZHANBUJINXUYAODANXIANGJISHUJINBU,HAIXUYAOZHENGGEJISHUSHENGTAIHUANJINGDEZHICHI,ZHEIBAOKUODALIANGDEKEYANRENYUANHEZUGOUDEKEYANTOURU。ERPEIYANGRENCAIYUKAIZHANYANJIUZHENGSHIXIANDAIDAXUEDESHEHUIZHIZE,YINCICHANYEJIEYIZHIYILAIDOUFEICHANGZHONGSHIYUXUESHUJIEDELIANXI,BINGBUDUANTANSUOXINMOSHILAIJIAQIANGZHEIZHONGLIANXI。

SRC:企业社团模式

20 SHIJI70 NIANDAIMODAO80 NIANDAICHU,MEIGUODEBANDAOTIGONGYEDEFAZHANJINRULEPINGJINGQI,YIFANGMIANAT&T、IBM、SHILE、XIWUGONGSI、TONGYONGDIANQIDENGDAGONGSIYOUYUJINGFEIJINZHANG,YIBUNENGXIANGYIQIANNEIYANGJIXUWEICHIDAGUIMODEQIYESHIYANSHI,YINCIDOUDAFUXUEJIANLEDUIJICHUYANJIUDETOURU,ZHEIDAOZHIMEIGUOQIYEZAIQUANQIUBANDAOTICHANYEZHONGDEFENEHEJINGZHENGLIBUDUANXIAHUA。LINGYIFANGMIAN,YINWEIJICHENGDIANLUDESHEJIHESHENGCHANCHENGBENBUDUANZENGJIA,ERLIANBANGZHENGFUTOURUDEYANJIUJINGFEIQUEBUDUANJIANSHAO,DAOZHIZHIYOUHENSHAODEDAXUEKAIZHANBANDAOTIXIANGGUANDEYANJIU。1982 NIAN,QUANMEISHANGQIANSUODAXUEZHONGZHIYOUBUDAO100 WEIJIAOSHOUHEXUESHENGCONGSHIBANDAOTIXIANGGUANDEYANJIU【7】,MEIGUODEBANDAOTICHANYEQIANJINGYIPIANHUIAN。

MIANDUIRUCIYANJUNDEJUMIAN,YOU“GUIGUSHIZHANG”ZHICHENGDEYINGTEERLIANHECHUANGSHIRENZHIYILUOBOTE·NUOYISI(Robert Noyce) TINGSHENERCHU,ZAI1982 NIANJILELALI·SANGNI(Larry Sumney) YIZHANGGERENZHIPIAO,WEITUOTAFUZEQIDONGBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUAN(Semiconductor Research Corporation, SRC)。GAISHETUANSHIYIGEFEIYINGLIZUZHI,QIMUBIAOSHIDINGYIBANDAOTIXIANGGUANDEYANJIUFANGXIANG、TANSUOZHONGYAODEQIANZAIXINJISHU、YINDAODAXUEPEIYANGBANDAOTIYANJIUFANGMIANDERENCAI。

BANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANDEYUNZUOFANGSHIHENXIANGMEIGUOGUOJIAKEXUEJIJINHUI(NSF),DANJINGFEILAIYUANZHUYAOYIKAOJIAMENGQIYEDEHUIYUANFEIYIJIZHENGFU、JUNFANGDEBUFENZHICHI。ZAIBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANCHENGLIZHICHU,QIHUIYUANZHUYAOYOUIBM、YINGTEER、MOTUOLUOLADENG11 JIAQIYE,RUJINYIJINGFAZHANDAO20 DUOJIA。BANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANFUZESHOUJIQIYEDEYANJIUXUQIU,BINGFANKUIDAODAXUE。DAXUEJIAOSHOUZEKEYIGENJUZIJIDEYANJIUXINGQUYUYOUSHIXIANGBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANSHENQINGJINGFEI,YIGEXIANGMUJISHIWANMEIYUAN。LIRU,2011 NIAN,DUOJIAQIYEYINWEIDUIJICHENGXITONGSHEJIYOUYANJIUXUQIU,YUSHIXIANGBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANTIJIAOLEYIFEN3 YEZHANGDEBAIPISHU,QIZHONGBAOHANDUOHEPIANSHANGXITONG(system on a chip, SoC) SHEJI、XITONGGONGHAOYOUHUADENG5 DALEI35 GEJUTIYANJIUXUQIU。DAXUEJIAOSHOUKEYIGENJUGAIBAIPISHUXIANGBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANTIJIAOYUZHEIXIEXUQIUXIANGPEIDEYANJIUSHENQING,BANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANJIANGHUIYAOQINGZHUANJIADUIXIANGMUSHENQINGSHUJINXINGPINGSHEN,ZEYOUZIZHU。

ZAIJUTIXIANGMUGUANLIFANGSHISHANG,BANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANGENJUBUTONGDEYANJIUFANGXIANGZHIDINGXIANGYINGDEYANJIUJIHUA,MEIGEYANJIUJIHUABAOHAN5~6GEYANJIUZHONGXIN。BIZHEZAIPULINSIDUNDAXUESHIKAIZHANDEPARSECXIANGMUJIUDEDAOLEBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANDEZIZHU,LISHUYUFCRP(Focus Center Research Program) YANJIUJIHUAZHONGDEGSRC(Gigascale System Research Center) YANJIUZHONGXIN【8】。TU1 ZUOCELIECHULECANYUGSRC DEDAXUEJIAOSHOU,ZHEIXIEJIAOSHOUJIHUDOUSHILAIZIJIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAO、SITANFUDAXUE、MASHENGLIGONGXUEYUAN、KANAIJIMEILONGDAXUE、PULINSIDUNDAXUE、YILINUOYIDAXUEXIANGBINFENXIAODENGDINGJIANDAXUE。SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,YOUDEJIAOSHOUZAIXIANGMUJIESHUHOUTUICHU,TONGSHIYOUHUIYOUXINDEJIAOSHOUJIARU。YIGSRC WEILI,GAIYANJIUZHONGXINQIDONGYU2008 NIAN,2013 NIANJIESHU。5 NIANQIJIANGONGYOULAIZI25 SUODAXUEDE84 WEIJIAOSHOU、561 WEIXUESHENGCANYU。GSRCDEZHUGUANSHIPULINSIDUNDAXUEDIANZIGONGCHENGXIDESHALAKE·MALIKE(Sharad Malik) JIAOSHOU。ZAITADEJINGXINZUZHIXIA,GSRC DEJIAOSHOUYUXUESHENGJIHUMEIZHOUDOUKEYITONGGUOWANGLUOSHIPINHUIYIXITONGWebEx CANJIAXUESHUBAOGAO,LEJIEQITAYANJIUXIAOZUDEZUIXINYANJIUJINZHAN。CIWAI,GSRC MEINIANHAIYOULIANGCIWEIQI3 TIANDEMIANDUIMIANJIAOLIUHUI,HUISHANGGEGEDAXUEDEJIAOSHOUDOUHUIDAILINGXUESHENGCANJIA,TONGSHIHAIYOUHENDUOQIYEDAIBIAOCANJIA。ZAIGUOQU5NIAN,GSRC YIGONGFABIAOLE3318 PIANXUESHULUNWEN,12 XIANGZHUANLIHUODELESHOUQUAN。CANYUZIZHUDEQIYEHUIYUANBUJINKEYIGONGXIANGZHEIXIEYANJIUCHENGGUO,ERQIEYEXIYINLEHENDUOXUESHENGJIARUQIYE。

BANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANZICHENGLIYILAIBUJINXIANGXUESHUJIELEIJISHUSONGLELAIZICHANYEJIEDECHAOGUO20 YIMEIYUANDEYANJIUJINGFEI,ERQIEHAIBANGZHUCHANYEJIEJIANGXUQIUJISHIYOUXIAODIFANKUIDAOXUESHUJIE,YINDAOLEXUESHUJIEDEYANJIUFANGXIANG,PEIYANGLEDALIANGBANDAOTIJISHURENCAI。20 SHIJI80 NIANDAICHUQUANMEIGAOXIAOBUZU100 RENCANYUBANDAOTIYANJIUDEGANGALISHIYIQUBUFUFAN。ZAIGUOQU30 DUONIANJIAN,BANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANLEIJIZIZHULESHANGWANMINGGAOXIAODEXUESHENGCANYUBANDAOTIXIANGGUANDEXIANGMU,RENHESHIHOUDOUYOU1200~1500 MINGXUESHENGCANYUDAOBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANXIANGMUZHONG,ERQIEJUEDADUOSHUDOUSHIBOSHISHENG。ZHENGSHIYOUYUBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANZAIXUESHUJIEYUCHANYEJIEZHIJIANBANYANLEZHONGYAODEQIAOLIANGZUOYONG,TUIDONGLEBANDAOTICHANYEDEFAZHAN,2005 NIANMEIGUOLIANBANGZHENGFUSHOUYUBANDAOTIYANJIUSHETUANMEIGUOKEJIJIEDEZUIGAORONGYU——GUOJIAJISHUCHUANGXINJIANGZHANG(National Medal of Technology and Innovation)。

企业联合资助模式

QIYELIANHEZIZHUMOSHISHIYIZHONGDINGXIANGZIZHUMOSHI,YIBANYOURUOGANGONGSILIANHEQILAIZHIJIEZIZHUMOUGEDAXUEDESHIYANSHI,ZIZHUDELIDUDASHUBAIWANSHENZHISHANGQIANWANMEIYUAN。LIRU,2007 NIAN3YUE,YINGTEERYUWEIRUANXUANBULIANHECHUZI2000 WANMEIYUAN,FENBIEZIZHUJIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAODE“BINGXINGJISUANSHIYANSHIPARLab”YUYILINUOYIDAXUEXIANGBINFENXIAODE“TONGYONGBINGXINGJISUANYANJIUZHONGXINUPCRC”KAIZHANDUOHEBINGXINGJISUANFANGMIANDEYANJIUGONGZUO。2011 NIAN2 YUE,JIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAOHUODELELAIZIYAMAXUN、GUGEHESAP DELIANHEZIZHU,CHENGLILEAMP(algorithm, machine, people) SHIYANSHI,KAIZHANMIANXIANGSHUJUZHONGXINYUDASHUJUTIAOZHANDEYANJIU。CIHOU,AMP SHIYANSHIYOUXIYINLEBAOKUOPINGGUO、WEIRUAN、LIANPU、YAHU、YINGTEER、SANXINGHEHUAWEIDENGSHIJIJIAQIYEDEZIZHU。

QIYELIANHEZIZHUMOSHIGENGXIANGSHIYIZHONGJUANZENGMOSHI,QIYEHUIDUIBEIZIZHUDESHIYANSHITICHUYIXIEYAOQIU,BIRUYANJIURENYUANTOURULIDU、XIANGYINGDEPIPEIJINGFEIDENG,YEKEYIFENXIANGYANJIUCHENGGUO。ZHEIZHONGMOSHISHIJIANLIZAIHUHUIHULIDEJICHUSHANGDE,CONGSHIYANSHIJIAODULAIKAN,JIHUODELEJINGFEIYOUBAOLIULEXUESHUZIYOUDUYIJICHENGGUODEZHIPEIQUAN,ZHEIYANGKEYIXIYINGENGDUOGENGHAODEXUESHENGJIARU,KAIZHANYIXIEFUYOUTIAOZHANDEYANJIUXIANGMU;CONGQIYEJIAODULAIKAN,TONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHIYUDINGJIANSHIYANSHIJIANLIMIQIEDELIANXI,KEYICANYUDAOSHIYANSHIDEYANJIUGUOCHENGHEJIAOLIUHUODONGZHONG,TIGONGQIANYANXUQIUXINXI,JISHIFANKUISHIYANSHIYANJIUGONGZUOZHONGDEBUZU,FENXIANGSHIYANSHIYANJIUCHENGGUO,TONGSHIHAIYOULIYUCONGZHEIXIEDINGJIANSHIYANSHIZHAOMUDAOYOUXIUDEBIYESHENG。BIRU,ZIZHUAMP SHIYANSHIDEQIYEHUIBEIYAOQINGCANJIASHIYANSHINEIBUMEINIANLIANGCIWEIQI3TIANDEJIAOLIUHUI,ERSHIYANSHIDEBIYESHENGYEDADOUQULEZHEIXIEQIYEGONGZUO。

开源社区模式

JINNIANLAI,KAIYUANYICHENGWEIYUELAIYUELIUXINGDEKAIFAMOSHI,SHIJIEGEDIDEKAIFAZHEGENJUZIJIDEXINGQUZHUJIANXINGCHENGGEGEKAIYUANSHEQU,BIRULinux KAIYUANSHEQU、Hadoop KAIYUANSHEQUDENG,CUJINLEJISHUSHENGTAIXITONGDEKUAISUFAZHAN。RUJIN,YUELAIYUEDUODEQIYEJIARUDAOKAIYUANSHEQU,RUYAHUFAQIHETUIDONGLEHadoopSHEQU,IBM TOURULEHENDUOZIYUANDAOLinux SHEQU。ERLIANPUGENGSHIDACHU“KAIYUANYIQIE”(open source everything)DEKOUHAO,GONGKAILEYIXILIENEIBUXIANGMU,BAOKUOGUANYUSHUJUZHONGXINSHEJIDEKAIFANGJISUANXIANGMU(open compute project)、NoSQL SHUJUKUCassandra、SHUJUCANGKUPINGTAIApache HiveDENG。

QIYEKAIYUANDUIXUESHUJIEYOUHENDADEXIYINLI,NENGXIYINDALIANGDEKEYANRENYUANCANYUDAOKAIYUANXIANGMUDEWANSHANHEYOUHUAZHONG, SHIXIANSHUANGYING。YIFANGMIANDAXUEDEJIAOSHOUHEXUESHENGKEYICONGKAIYUANXIANGMUZHONGZHAODAOYOUYIYIDEYANJIUWENTI,ZUOCHUHAOYANJIU、FABIAOHAOWENZHANGHUOZHAODAOHAOGONGZUO;LINGYIFANGMIAN,QIYEYENENGCONGDAXUEYANJIUCHENGGUOZHONGZHIJIESHOUYI,JIANGXUESHUJIETICHUDEYOUHUAFANGANYINGYONGDAOCHANPINXITONGZHONG,TONGSHIHAINENGXIYINCANYUKAIYUANXIANGMUYANJIUDEBOSHISHENGBIYEHOUJIARUDAOQIYE。HUARENXUEZHE、EHAIEZHOULIDAXUEDEZHANGXIAODONGJIAOSHOUJIUSHICANYUKAIYUANXIANGMUYANJIUDEDIANFAN。TADETUANDUITONGGUODUIApache Hive CUNCHUXITONGDEYANJIU,FAXIANLEQIDIXIAOCUNCHUDEGENYUAN,TICHULERCFileYOUHUAJISHU,GAIJISHUHENKUAIBEILIANPUCAIYONG,BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGZUOLEGAIJINYINGYONGDAOCHANPINZHONG。ZHANGXIAODONGDETUANDUIYEYINCIZAIVLDB、SIGMOD DENGDINGJIHUIYISHANGFABIAOLEYIXILIEWENZHANG,CANYUYANJIUDEXUESHENGZAILIANPUGONGZUOQIJIANYEDEDAOLEKEGUANDESHOURU。DUIYULIANPUERYAN,TAMENDEXITONGXINGNENGDEDAOLEDAFUTIGAO,CHANSHENGLEJUDADEJINGJIXIAOYI,ERQIEHAIFABIAOLEDINGJILUNWEN,XIYINLEGENGDUOBOSHIBIYESHENGJIARUQIYE,TISHENGLEQIYEDEJISHUJINGZHENGLI。ZHEIXIEZHENGSHIDEYIYULIANPUDEKAIYUANJIHUA。

其他传统模式

CHANYEJIEYUXUESHUJIEZHIJIANDEHUDONG,CHULESHANGSHUXINXINGMOSHI,HAIYOUBUSHAOCHUANTONGMOSHI:

1. HENDUOQIYESHELIYIXIEMIANXIANGDAXUEJIAOSHOUDEYANJIUZIZHUXIANGMU(faculty research program),DAXUEJIAOSHOUKEYIXIANGQIYETIJIAOXIANGMUSHENQING,TONGGUOPINGSHENHOUNENGHUODEZIZHU。ZHEIXIEXIANGMUJINGFEIEDUBINGBUDUO,WANGWANGZHIYOUJIWANMEIYUAN,DANQIYEDUIXIANGMUGUANLIHENKUANSONG,JIAOSHOUZAIYANJIUNEIRONGYUJINGFEIZHIPEISHANGYOUHENDADEZIYOUDU。

2. HENDUOQIYEJIANGYIXIEZUIXIANJINDECHANPINMIANFEIJUANZENGJIDAXUESHIYANSHI,XIWANGSHIYANSHINENGJIYUZHEIXIECHANPINKAIZHANYANJIU。LIRU,YINGTEERTUICHUZHONGHEXINPIANXeon Phi HOU,XIANGPULINSIDUNDAXUELIKAIJIAOSHOUDENAOKEXUEKETIZUMIANFEITIGONGLE60 KEXeon Phi XINPIANYIJIYIPIPEITAODEXeon XINPIAN,YONGYUDAJIANYIGEJIYUXeon Phi DEJIQUNXITONG;YINGTEERWEIJIAZHOUDAXUEBOKELIFENXIAODEBINGXINGJISUANSHIYANSHITIGONGYITAODAZAILEZHICHIYINGJIANHUANCUNHUAFENDESandy BridgeCHULIQIYUANXINGXITONG,YONGYUPINGGUHUANCUNHUAFENXIAOGUO。ZHEIXIESHIYANXINPIANDUIYANJIUFEICHANGYOUJIAZHI,DANZAISHICHANGSHANGQUEMAIBUDAO,SUOYIJIYUGAISHIYANXINPIANDEXIANGGUANYANJIUCHENGGUOHENKUAIFABIAOZAI2013 NIANDUDEGUOJITIXIJIEGOUDINGJIHUIYIISCA SHANG。

3. QIYEMIANXIANGDAXUEZHAOSHOUSHIXISHENG。XUESHENGZAIQIYESHIXIDEGUOCHENGZHONGKEYIZHIJIEJIECHUQIYEDEQIANYANXUQIU,CONGERFANKUIDAOXUESHUJIE。DANGTAMENHUIDAODAXUEHOU,HENDUORENHAISHIHUIJIXUKAIZHANYUSHIXIXIANGGUANDEYANJIUGONGZUO。

三、中国的机遇

BIZHEXIANGXINBENWENKAIPIANDE“BOSHIHOUYUMINGONG”DEGUSHISHIDUZHUANDE,ZHONGGUOMUQIANZHENGMIANLINZHECHANYESHENGJI,DADUOSHUQIYESHIXIANGXINZHISHIDELILIANG、ZUNZHONGZHISHIDE。SHISHISHANG,ZHONGGUODEQIYEDUIQIANYANJISHUDEXUQIUYUELAIYUEQIANG。YIHUAWEIGONGSIWEILI,2013 NIANYINGYEEGAODA2400 YIYUAN,LIRUNWEI210 YIYUAN,YIJINGCHENGWEIQUANQIUZUIDADETONGXINGONGSI。HUAWEIDE4G CHANPINYIJINGZAIQUANQIUZHANYOUZUIDASHICHANGFENE,ERDUIYU5G TONGXINJISHU,GENGSHICHUYUQUANQIULINGPAOZHEDEDIWEI,ZHEISHIDEHUAWEIYOUZHEGENGQIANGLIEDEZHANGWOQIANYANHEXINJISHUDEXUQIU。GUONEIHULIANWANGQIYEYONGYOUYUGUOJIYILIUQIYEXIANGDANGDE30% ZUOYOUDEGAOLIRUNLV,JUBEITANSUOQIANYANXINJISHUDEJINGJIJICHU。

SHISHISHANG,GUONEIDEXUESHUJIEYUCHANYEJIEZHIJIANDEHEZUOYIJINGYUELAIYUEMIQIELE,HEZUODEMOSHIYEYUJIAFENGFU,HENDUOQIYEYEZAICHANGSHIYUXUESHUJIEDEGEZHONGHEZUOMOSHI。LIRU,HUAWEIGONGSIYUZHONGGUOKEXUEYUANJISUANJISHUYANJIUSUODACHENGLEHEZUOXIEYI,HUAWEITOURUYANJIUJINGFEIZIZHUJISUANSUOYANZHIMIANXIANGYUNJISUANDEGAOTONGLIANGSHUJUZHONGXINJISHU;TENGXUNGONGSIBUJINTONGGUOZHONGGUOJISUANJIXUEHUISHELI“CCF- TENGXUNXINIUNIAOKEYANJIJINXIANGMU”,HAICHUZI3000 WANYUANYUQINGHUADAXUECHENGLILIANHESHIYANSHI;ERTAOBAOGONGSIZEYIZHIZAIJIJIDITUIDONGKAIYUANSHEQUDEFAZHAN。

YUGUOWAIXIANGBI,GUONEIXUESHUJIEDEGUANNIANZHUANBIANSIHUSHAOMANYIXIE,KEYANRENYUANHENSHAOZHUDONGYUCHANYEJIEJIAOLIU。ZHEIZHONGJUMIANDEDAPOXUYAOKEYANRENYUANYUQIYEDUOJIAOLIU,DUOXIANGQIYEQINGJIAO,DUOYUQIYEHEZUO。ZHIYOUGENGSHENRUDILEJIEQIYE,KEYANRENYUANCAINENGHUOQUZHENZHENGDECHANYEQIANYANXUQIU,CAINENGZUOCHUZHENZHENGYOUJIAZHI、YOUYINGXIANGLIDEYANJIUGONGZUO,CAINENGYINGDEQIYEDEXINRENYUZUNZHONG,TONGGUOGENGGUANGFANSHENRUDEHEZUOYANJIU,GONGTONGTUIJINXINXIJISHUFAZHAN。

 

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